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Future directions This section needs to be updated. Far more work has gone into reconstructing it than any other proto-language, and it is by far the best understood of all proto-languages of its age.
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This is possible because the processes that change languages are not random, but follow strict patterns. Historical-comparative linguistics thus makes it possible to see great similarities between languages which at first sight might seem very different. Their culture and language spread by the same mechanisms of acculturalisation, and the absorption of other groups into their patron-client system. Proto-Indo-European homeland Most scholars assumed a homeland either in Europe or in Western Asia, and Sanskrit must in this case have reached India by a language transfer from west to east.
This interaction further shaped the Indo-Iranians, which split at c. The Indians already had a legal system, which was unknown to the British colonizers. Comparative method linguistics Connections between languages can be traced because the processes that change languages are not random, but follow strict patterns. Joining these groups was attractive for local leaders, since it strengthened their position, and gave them additional advantages. The comparative method aims to prove that two or more historically attested languages are descended from a single proto-language by comparing lists of cognate terms.
From them, regular sound correspondences between the languages are established, and a sequence of regular sound changes can then be postulated, which allows the proto-language to be reconstructed. Those dates seem to be too late to account for the shared vocabulary, and raise the question what their origin is. This framework explains the similarities between a wide range of contemporary and ancient languages. He learned Sanskrit, and studied Sanskrit texts, at the ancient Hindu university at Nadiya. Aryan race and Scientific racism In the s Max Müller introduced the notion of two Aryan races, a western and an eastern one, who migrated from the Caucasus into Europe and India respectively.
The decline of the Indus Valley Civilisation at precisely the period in history in which the Indo-Aryan migrations probably took place, seemed to provide independent support of such an invasion. Linguistics Linguistic research traces the connections between the various Indo-European languages, and reconstructs proto-Indo-European. To integrate these systems, the British had to learn Sanskrit, a task which was given to Sir William Jones. Relation is deemed certain only if at least a partial reconstruction of the common ancestor is feasible, rencontres lannion and if regular sound correspondences can be established with chance similarities ruled out. Language shift Indo-European languages probably spread through language shifts.
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